Maria Sibylla Merian - Metamorphosis insectorum surinamensium (1705)
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Seems like I should have known about Merian earlier but it was left to the Brain Pickings newsletter to inform me. The author was the focus of a Google doodle in 2013, was on the German 500 DM note, this book was reissued by Taschen in 2009 (though is out of print now) and Dover also released a selection. I missed it all.
Maria Sibylla Merian (1647-1717) was a German/Dutch entomologist and illustrator, a key figure in both fields. She also did botanical work but this book is her best known. There's an English-language biography - Kim Todd's Chrysalis: Maria Sibylla Merian and the Secrets of Metamorphosis (2007).